IWOCE RC PBC 2019

 
Welcome to International Workshop on Open Component Ecosystems 

Relatively new concepts for alternative energy 



Carbon-neutral fuels are synthetic fuels (including methane, gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel or ammonia) produced by hydrogenating waste carbon dioxide recycled from power plant flue-gas emissions, recovered from automotive exhaust gas, or derived from carbonic acid in seawater. Commercial fuel synthesis companies suggest they can produce synthetic fuels for less than petroleum fuels when oil costs more than $55 per barrel. Renewable methanol (RM) is a fuel produced from hydrogen and carbon dioxide by catalytic hydrogenation where the hydrogen has been obtained from water electrolysis. It can be blended into transportation fuel or processed as a chemical feedstock.

Such fuels are considered carbon-neutral because they do not result in a net increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases. To the extent that synthetic fuels displace fossil fuels, or if they are produced from waste carbon or seawater carbonic acid, and their combustion is subject to carbon capture at the flue or exhaust pipe, they result in negative carbon dioxide emission and net carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere, and thus constitute a form of greenhouse gas remediation.
Nighttime wind power is considered the most economical form of electrical power with which to synthesize fuel, because the load curve for electricity peaks sharply during the day, but wind tends to blow slightly more at night than during the day, so, the price of nighttime wind power is often much less expensive than any alternative. Germany has built a 250 kilowatt synthetic methane plant which they are scaling up to 10 megawatts.

The heat can be used to power building systems (such as heat process water) or to produce energy. Biofuel is oil extracted from the algae upon maturity, and used to create energy similar to the use of biodiesel. The biomass is the matter left over after extracting the oil and water, and can be harvested to produce combustible methane for energy production, similar to the warmth felt in a compost pile or the methane collected from biodegradable materials in a landfill. Additionally, the benefits of algae biofuel are that it can be produced industrially, as well as vertically (i.e. as a building facade), thereby obviating the use of arable land and food crops (such as soy, palm, and canola).

Biogas digestion harnesses the methane gas that is released when organic waste breaks down in an anaerobic environment. This gas can be retrieved from landfill sites or sewage systems. The gas can be used as a fuel for heat or, more commonly, electricity generation. The methane gas that is collected and refined can be used as an energy source for various products.

Hydroelectricity provided 75% of the worlds renewable electricity in 2013. Much of the electricity used today is a result of the heyday of conventional hydroelectric development between 1960 and 1980, which has virtually ceased in Europe and North America due to environmental concerns. Globally there is a trend towards more hydroelectricity. From 2004 to 2014 the installed capacity rose from 715 to 1,055 GW. A popular alternative to the large dams of the past is run-of-the-river where there is no water stored behind a dam and generation usually varies with seasonal rainfall. Using run-of-the-river in wet seasons and solar in dry seasons can balance seasonal variations for both. Another move away from large dams is small hydro, these tend to be situated high up on tributaries, rather than on main rivers in valley bottoms.

Significant generation of offshore wind energy already contributes to electricity needs in Europe and Asia and now the first offshore wind farms are under development in U.S. waters. While the offshore wind industry has grown dramatically over the last several decades, especially in Europe, there is still uncertainty associated with how the construction and operation of these wind farms affect marine animals and the marine environment.

In the year 2015 ten new reactors came online and 67 more were under construction including the first eight new Generation III+ AP1000 reactors in the US and China and the first four new Generation III EPR reactors in Finland, France and China. Reactors are also under construction in Belarus, Brazil, India, Iran, Japan, Pakistan, Russia, Slovakia, South Korea, Turkey, Ukraine and United Arab Emirates.

Publicly traded alternative energy companies have been very volatile, with some 2007 returns in excess of 100%, some 2008 returns down 90% or more, and peak-to-trough returns in 2019 again over 100%. In general there are three sub-segments of alternative energy investment: solar energy, wind energy and hybrid electric vehicles. Each of these four segments involve very different technologies and investment concerns.

Wind power has been harnessed for over 100 years and its underlying technology is stable. Its economics are largely determined by demand, steel prices, and the composite material used for the blades. Because current wind turbines are often in excess of 100 meters high, logistics and a global manufacturing platform are major sources of competitive advantage.

Due to rising gas prices in 2008, with the US national average price per gallon of regular unleaded gas rising above $4.00 a gallon, there has been a steady investment in developing higher fuel efficiency vehicles and more alternative fuel vehicles for consumers. In response, many smaller companies have rapidly increased research and development into radically different ways of powering consumer vehicles. Hybrid and battery electric vehicles are commercially available and are gaining wider industry and consumer acceptance worldwide. In 2010, Nissan USA introduced the world's first mass-production electric vehicle, the Nissan Leaf. A plug-in hybrid car, the Chevrolet Volt also has been produced, using an electric motor to drive the wheels, and a small four-cylinder engine to generate additional electricity.

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

Member of IWOCE RC PBC 2019:



Professor

Roberto Di Cosmo


Definitions of different ecosystems


Research Proposal


Software Component Definition


History alternative energy


Enabling  technologies


Renewable energy vs non-renewable energy


Relatively new concepts for alternative energy


Research alternative energy


Disadvantages alternative energy



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