IWOCE RC PBC 2019

 
Welcome to International Workshop on Open Component Ecosystems 

Wind power 



Wind farms consist of many individual wind turbines, which are connected to the electric power transmission network. Onshore wind is an inexpensive source of electric power, competitive with or in many places cheaper than coal or gas plants. Offshore wind is steadier and stronger than on land and offshore farms have less visual impact, but construction and maintenance costs are considerably higher. Small onshore wind farms can feed some energy into the grid or provide electric power to isolated off-grid locations.

Through wind resource assessment it is possible to provide estimates of wind power potential globally, by country or region, or for a specific site. A global assessment of wind power potential is available via the Global Wind Atlas provided by the Technical University of Denmark in partnership with the World Bank. Unlike 'static' wind resource atlases which average estimates of wind speed and power density across multiple years, tools such as Renewables.ninja provide time-varying simulations of wind speed and power output from different wind turbine models at an hourly resolution. More detailed, site specific assessments of wind resource potential can be obtained from specialist commercial providers, and many of the larger wind developers will maintain in-house modeling capabilities.
To assess prospective wind power sites a probability distribution function is often fit to the observed wind speed data. Different locations will have different wind speed distributions. The Weibull model closely mirrors the actual distribution of hourly/ten-minute wind speeds at many locations. The Weibull factor is often close to 2 and therefore a Rayleigh distribution can be used as a less accurate, but simpler model.
Induction generators, which were often used for wind power projects in the 1980s and 1990s, require reactive power for excitation, so substations used in wind-power collection systems include substantial capacitor banks for power factor correction. Different types of wind turbine generators behave differently during transmission grid disturbances, so extensive modelling of the dynamic electromechanical characteristics of a new wind farm is required by transmission system operators to ensure predictable stable behaviour during system faults. In particular, induction generators cannot support the system voltage during faults, unlike steam or hydro turbine-driven synchronous generators.
World wind generation capacity more than quadrupled between 2000 and 2006, doubling about every 3 years. The United States pioneered wind farms and led the world in installed capacity in the 1980s and into the 1990s. In 1997 installed capacity in Germany surpassed the United States and led until once again overtaken by the United States in 2008. China has been rapidly expanding its wind installations in the late 2000s and passed the United States in 2010 to become the world leader. As of 2011, 83 countries around the world were using wind power on a commercial basis.
Since wind speed is not constant, a wind farm's annual energy production is never as much as the sum of the generator nameplate ratings multiplied by the total hours in a year. The ratio of actual productivity in a year to this theoretical maximum is called the capacity factor. Typical capacity factors are 15–50%; values at the upper end of the range are achieved in favourable sites and are due to wind turbine design improvements.
A wind energy penetration figure can be specified for different duration of time, but is often quoted annually. To obtain 100% from wind annually requires substantial long term storage or substantial interconnection to other systems which may already have substantial storage. On a monthly, weekly, daily, or hourly basis—or less—wind might supply as much as or more than 100% of current use, with the rest stored or exported. Seasonal industry might then take advantage of high wind and low usage times such as at night when wind output can exceed normal demand. Such industry might include production of silicon, aluminum, steel, or of natural gas, and hydrogen, and using future long term storage to facilitate 100% energy from variable renewable energy. Homes can also be programmed to accept extra electric power on demand, for example by remotely turning up water heater thermostats.
GE has installed a prototype wind turbine with onboard battery similar to that of an electric car, equivalent of 1 minute of production. Despite the small capacity, it is enough to guarantee that power output complies with forecast for 15 minutes, as the battery is used to eliminate the difference rather than provide full output. In certain cases the increased predictability can be used to take wind power penetration from 20 to 30 or 40 per cent. The battery cost can be retrieved by selling burst power on demand and reducing backup needs from gas plants.
Typically, conventional hydroelectricity complements wind power very well. When the wind is blowing strongly, nearby hydroelectric stations can temporarily hold back their water. When the wind drops they can, provided they have the generation capacity, rapidly increase production to compensate. This gives a very even overall power supply and virtually no loss of energy and uses no more water.

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

Member of IWOCE RC PBC 2019:



Professor

Roberto Di Cosmo


Definitions of different ecosystems


Research Proposal


Software Component Definition


History alternative energy


Enabling  technologies


Renewable energy vs non-renewable energy


Relatively new concepts for alternative energy


Research alternative energy


Disadvantages alternative energy



RC PBC
  www.redcross-pbc.org